Proposed criteria introduction text

David A. Wheeler

All: Here's some proposed criteria introduction text.
Comments? It's lengthy, so I want to fix it up *before* our translators have
to deal with it.

The plan is to use this text to enable people to more easily see
all the criteria in *any* our supported natural languages.
People will be able to view "/criteria" on the BadgeApp and
see this (translated) introduction, and all the translated criteria.

--- David A. Wheeler


<h2 id='introduction'>Introduction</h2>
There is no set of practices that can <i>guarantee</i> that software
will never have defects or vulnerabilities.
Even formal methods can fail if the
specifications or assumptions are wrong.
Nor is there any set of practices that can guarantee that a project will
sustain a healthy and well-functioning development community.</p>
However, following best practices can help improve the results
of projects.
For example, some practices enable multi-person review before release,
which can both help find otherwise hard-to-find technical vulnerabilities
and help build trust and a desire for repeated interaction among
developers from different organizations.</p>
This page presents a set of best practices
for Free/Libre and Open Source Software (FLOSS) projects.
Projects that follow these best practices
will be able to voluntarily self-certify and show that they've
achieved the relevant
Core Infrastructure Initiative (CII) Best Practices badge.
Projects can do this, at no cost,
by using a web application (BadgeApp)
to explain how they meet these practices and their detailed criteria.</p>
These best practices have been created to:</p>
<li>encourage projects to follow best practices,</li>
<li>help new projects discover what those practices are, and</li>
<li>help users know which projects are following best practices
(so users can prefer such projects).</li>
The idiom "best practices" means
"a procedure or set of procedures that is preferred or considered
standard within an organization, industry, etc."
<a href=""
These criteria are what we believe are
widely "preferred or considered standard"
in the wider FLOSS community.</p>
For more information on how these criteria were developed,
see the <a
CII Best Practices badge GitHub site</a>.</p>
<h3 id='criteria_structure'>Criteria Structure</h3>
The best practices criteria are divided into three levels:<ul>
<li><b>Passing</b> focuses on best practices
that well-run FLOSS projects typically already follow.
Getting the passing badge is an achievement; at any one time
only about 10% of projects pursuing a badge achieve the passing level.
<li><b>Silver</b> is a more stringent set of criteria than passing but is
expected to be achievable by small and single-organization projects.
<li><b>Gold</b> is even more stringent than silver and includes
criteria that are not achievable by small or single-organization projects.
Every criterion has a short name, shown below as superscripted
text inside square brackets.
<h3 id='criteria_other_projects'>Relationship to Other Projects</h3>
The Linux Foundation also sponsors the
<a href=""
rel="nofollow">OpenChain Project</a>, which
identifies criteria for a "high quality Free
and Open Source Software (FOSS) compliance program."
OpenChain focuses on how organizations can best use FLOSS and contribute
back to FLOSS projects, while the CII Best Practices badge
focuses on the FLOSS projects themselves.
The CII Best Practices badge and OpenChain work together to help
improve FLOSS and how FLOSS is used.</p>
<h3 id='criteria_automation'>Criteria Automation</h3>
In some cases we automatically test and fill in information
if the project follows standard conventions and
is hosted on a site (e.g., GitHub) with decent API support.
We intend to improve this automation in the future;
improvements are welcome!</p>
<h3 id='criteria_changes'>Changes over time</h3>
We expect that these practices and their detailed criteria will
be updated over time.
We plan to add new criteria but mark them as "future" criteria, so that
projects can add that information and maintain their badge.</p>
Feedback is <em>very</em> welcome via the
<a href=""
GitHub site as issues or pull requests</a>.
There is also a
<a href=""
rel="nofollow">mailing list for general discussion</a>.</p>
<h3 id='keywords'>Key words</h3>
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT",
in this document are to be interpreted as described in
<a href="" rel="nofollow">RFC 2119</a>.
The additional term SUGGESTED is added.
In summary, these key words have the following meanings:</p>
<li>The term MUST is an absolute requirement, and MUST NOT
is an absolute prohibition.</li>
<li>The term SHOULD indicates a criterion that is normally required,
but there may exist valid reasons in particular circumstances
to ignore it.
However, the full implications must be understood and carefully weighed
before choosing a different course.</li>
<li>The term SUGGESTED is used instead of SHOULD when the criterion must
be considered, but the valid reasons
to not do so are even more common than for SHOULD.</li>
<li>The term MAY provides one way something can be done, e.g.,
to make it clear that the described implementation is acceptable.</li>
Often a criterion is stated as something that SHOULD be done, or is
SUGGESTED, because it may be difficult to implement or the costs
to do so may be high.</p>
<h3 id='criteria_achieving_badge'>Achieving a badge</h3>
To obtain a badge, all MUST and MUST NOT criteria must be met, all
SHOULD criteria must be either met OR unmet with justification, and
all SUGGESTED criteria have to be considered (it must be
rated as met or unmet, but justification is not required
unless noted otherwise).
An answer of N/A ("not applicable"), where allowed, is considered
the same as being met.
In some cases, especially in the higher levels,
justification and/or a URL may be required.</p>
Some criteria have special markings that influence this:<ul>
<li><b>{N/A allowed}</b> - "N/A" ("Not applicable") is allowed.
<li><b>{N/A justification}</b> - "N/A" ("Not applicable") is allowed
and requires justification.
<li><b>{Met justification}</b> - "Met" requires justification.
<li><b>{Met URL}</b> - "Met" requires justification with a URL.
<li><b>{Future}</b> - the answer to this criterion currently
has no effect, but it may be required in the future.
A project must achieve the previous level to achieve the next level.
In some cases SHOULD criteria become MUST in higher level badges,
and some SUGGESTED criteria at lower levels become SHOULD or MUST
in higher level badges. The higher levels also require more
justification, because we want others to understand <i>how</i>
the criteria are being met.</p>
There is one implied passing criterion - every project MUST have
a public website with a stable URL. This is required to create
a badge entry in the first place.</p>
<h3 id='terminology'>Terminology</h3>
If you are not familiar with
software development or running a FLOSS project, materials such as
<a href=""
rel="nofollow"><em>Producing Open Source Software</em>
by Karl Fogel</a> may be helpful to you.</p>
Here are a few key terms.
A <em>project</em> is an active entity that has
project member(s) and produces project result(s).
Its member(s) use project sites to coordinate and disseminate result(s).
A project does not need to be a formal legal entity.
Key terms relating to projects are:</p>
<li>Project <em>members</em> are the
group of one or more people or companies who work together
to attempt to produce project results.
Some FLOSS projects may have different kinds of members, with different
roles, but that's outside our scope.</li>
<li>Project <em>results</em> are what the project members work together
to produce as their end goal. Normally this is software,
but project results may include other things as well.
Criteria that refer to "software produced by the project"
are referring to project results.</li>
<li>Project <em>sites</em>
are the sites dedicated to supporting the development
and dissemination of project results, and include
the project website, repository, and download sites where applicable
(see <a href="#sites_https">sites_https</a>).</li>
<li>The project <em>website</em>, aka project homepage, is the main page
on the world wide web (WWW) that a new user would typically visit to see
information about the project; it may be the same as the project's
repository site (this is often true on GitHub).</li>
<li>The project <em>repository</em> manages and stores the project results
and revision history of the project results.
This is also referred to as the project <em>source repository</em>,
because we only require managing and storing of the editable versions,
not of automatically generated results
(in many cases generated results are not stored in a repository).</li>

--- David A. Wheeler
Director of Open Source Supply Chain Security, The Linux Foundation